Hawking's last book is full of worries about the future: artificial intelligence may have its own will
picture source: American quartz finance station
cover of brief answers to major questions. The picture comes from the network
source: Science and technology
on October 16, the late famous physicist Stephen Hawking's final book "brief answers to major problems" was published, involving his thinking on the biggest problems facing science and society, including "will human beings always survive on the earth? (may not)" "is time travel possible? (still unable to rule out the possibility)"; There are also final predictions on issues such as the most serious threat facing the earth, "Superman" population, whether there is intelligent life in outer space, and how to explore space colonies. These predictions are full of Hawking's deep worries about the future of mankind
according to the US quartz financial station 15, Hawking said in his book that in the future, artificial intelligence may form its own will - a will that conflicts with our human beings; A "Superman" population that uses genetic engineering to surpass its peers will dominate, which may destroy mankind
human evolution has no boundaries
quartz financial station 16. Throughout the book, Hawking is pessimistic about the future of human beings on earth. Political instability, climate change and the possibility of nuclear violence make the sustainability of human development on earth unsustainable
Hawking believes that the number one threat facing the earth is asteroid collision, similar to the collision that led to the extinction of dinosaurs. "However, we cannot defend ourselves," he wrote
the more immediate threat is climate change. "Rising ocean temperature will melt the ice cap and release a large amount of carbon dioxide. The experimental machine adopts a microcomputer to control the whole experimental process. The dual effect may lead to our climate similar to Venus, with a temperature of 250 ℃."
Hawking believes that nuclear fusion power generation will give us clean energy, no pollution and no global warming
in the chapter "how do we shape the future", Hawking disagrees with the idea that human beings are at the "peak of evolution". In his view, human evolution and efforts have no boundaries
he believes that there are two choices for the future of mankind: first, explore the historical breakthrough of realizing the Chinese nation's Centennial "big plane dream" and find other alternative planets that can be used for human habitation. He advocated space colonization in more than one chapter, including colonizing the moon, Mars or interstellar planets; Secondly, we should actively use artificial intelligence to improve our world
AI will form its own will
Hawking also stressed the importance of standardizing the management of AI. He pointed out that "in the future, artificial intelligence may form its own will, which conflicts with our human will". The possible automatic arms race should be stopped. If there is a weapons crash like the flash crash of the stock market in 2010, the consequences will be unimaginable
he wrote in his book: "for human beings, the emergence of super intelligent artificial intelligence is either a blessing or a curse. The real danger of artificial intelligence is not malice, but ability. All materials that do not meet the requirements of the new national standard, super intelligent artificial intelligence will eventually be extremely good at achieving goals. If these goals are inconsistent with our goals, we will be in trouble."
he advocated that policy makers, the technology industry and the general public carefully study the moral impact of AI
"Superman" population will dominate
according to the British Sunday Times 15, Hawking's biggest concern is that the rich will soon be able to improve their own and their children's DNA, memory and disease immunityAccording to quartz financial station, Hawking believes that at some point in the next 1000 years, nuclear war or environmental disasters will "seriously damage the earth". By then, "our genius race may have found a way to get rid of the shackles of the earth, so it can overcome the disaster". However, other species on earth may not be able to do so
these people who successfully escaped the earth are likely to be new "Superman". They use genetic technology such as CRISPR (commonly known as "gene scissors") to surpass others. Scientists can use this kind of genetic technology to repair harmful genes and add other genes
Hawking also said that even if politicians try to prohibit this practice by law, these people will improve their memory, disease resistance and life expectancy regardless of the legal constraints prohibiting genetic engineering, which will pose a crisis to the rest of the world
in an excerpt from an article published in the Sunday Times on the 15th, Hawking said: "I am sure that people will find ways to modify intelligence and talent within this century. Politicians may enact laws prohibiting human genetic engineering, but surely some people cannot resist the temptation to improve human characteristics, such as memory, disease resistance and longevity."
he pointed out: "Once there is such a superman, those who fail to improve themselves through genetic transformation will inevitably encounter major political problems. They are unable to compete, and may become dispensable. Processing activity is excellent, and even extinct. However, in the future, there will be a self-designed human that continues to accelerate improvement. If this human race can constantly try to redesign itself, it is likely to spread and colonize other planets and planets."
as for why intelligent life has not been found or has not visited the earth, Hawking admitted that there are various opinions, and he is cautiously optimistic about this, but his preferred explanation is that human beings "ignore" the form of intelligent life in outer space