Hazard analysis and safety countermeasures of the

2022-08-13
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Chlorine hazard analysis and safety countermeasures

1.1 chlorine (liquid chlorine) poisoning

if explosion leakage occurs in the liquid chlorine section, chlorine can escape and lead to poisoning accidents of on-site personnel. The main reasons for this accident are: the high moisture content of chlorine gas leads to the corrosion of equipment and pipelines; Enrichment of nitrogen trichloride; The temperature and pressure in the liquid chlorine evaporator are too high, and the production system is out of control; Accident of tail gas treatment system; Improper selection of equipment structure and material; Mechanical equipment is not tightly sealed; The monitoring system is out of control; Operation error; The maintenance is not timely, etc. Poisoning is the most dangerous and harmful factor in the future when more factories will build the whole production plant

1.2 fire and explosion

(1) explosion hazard of electrolytic cell. In the electrolysis device, saturated salt water is electrolyzed by direct current to produce hydrogen and chlorine. In case of abnormal conditions, the mixture of air or oxygen and hydrogen reaches the explosion limit, and the electrolyzer may suffer fire and explosion. At the same time, because there is highly toxic chlorine in the device, once a fire explosion occurs, the leakage of toxic gas may occur, and the consequences will be more serious

(2) explosion hazard of pipeline transportation system. The chlorine main pipe contains a load sensor on the loading actuator to ensure the accuracy of the loading force value; The spindle mechanism is driven by the control Electromechanical, and the ball screw runs along the x-axis. The displacement hydrogen is controlled by the high-precision displacement measuring mechanism, and the hydrogen content of the tail gas after chlorine liquefaction is greater than 0.5%. There is the possibility of explosion accidents. Negative pressure occurs in the hydrogen pipeline, and air leaks in, forming an explosive gas mixture. In addition, in the liquid chlorine section, there is also a risk of explosion due to the enrichment of nitrogen trichloride

(3) explosion hazard of chlorine liquefaction and filling. When chlorine is liquefied, because hydrogen is still gaseous under the pressure and temperature of chlorine liquefaction, with the increase of chlorine liquefaction, the content of hydrogen in the remaining increases with chlorine. In view of the uncertainty of this matter, the liquefaction volume increases relatively, which is very easy to form explosive mixtures

(4) explosion hazard of chlorine storage. The chlorine storage equipment will not be corroded under the condition of chlorine drying, but after the water content exceeds 50ppm, the chlorine can react with water to generate acid, which will corrode the steel cylinder or container, perforation the storage equipment, and lead to leakage and explosion accident. 2 Terminology; At the same time, hydrogen is produced, making the concentration of chlorine enter the explosion limit range; Under acidic conditions, nitrogen trichloride is extremely active and prone to explosion

(5) explosion hazard of nitrogen trichloride. NCl3 is an oxidant with stronger oxidizability than chlorine. It is volatile and unstable in the air. When pure nitrogen trichloride meets with organic substances such as rubber and oil, it can have a strong reaction. It is more likely to explode under the influence of sunlight or collision "energy".

(6) ignition source existing in the process. The electrolysis process uses high current. If the electrical circuit is in poor contact and the insulation cannot meet the requirements, it is very easy to produce electric sparks as an ignition source. For example, the electric spark generated at the grounding of the electrolytic cell; Discharge sparks caused by poor ground insulation of alkali liquor discharge pipeline; Electric sparks caused by salt and alkali leakage of the circuit breaker and electric sparks caused by potential difference caused by leakage of hydrogen pipeline system; Discharge sparks occur between the internal components of the electrolytic cell due to the large potential difference or the reduction of the distance between the two poles. In addition, there are other ignition sources such as hydrogen combustion caused by lightning discharge pipe

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